APPLICATION: Solar Water HeatingApril 21st, 2009
Description: Most solar water heating systems consist of two major parts; The solar collector and the storage tank.
Solar hot water systems can be classified in different ways:
* The type of collector used
* The location of the collector – roof mount, ground mount, wall mount
* The location of the storage tank in relation to the collector
* The requirement for a pump – active vs. passive
* The method of heat transfer – open-loop or closed-loop (via heat exchanger)
* Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collectors can be designed to produce both hot water and electricity.
Flate-plate collector (wikipedia)
Flat-plate collectors are the most common collector for residential water heating installations. It is usually mounted on the roof. A typical flat-plate collector is an airtight insulated box (usually metal) with a transparent glass or plastic cover and a dark-coloured absorber plate. These collectors heat water contained in a network of tubing, which usually run throughout the collector. Flat plate collectors transfer the heat of the sun to water either directly or through the use of another fluid and a heat exchanger. An absorber plate transfers energy from solar radiation to a fluid that circulates within it. Absorber plates are often coated to maximize the amount of radiation collected.
Active systems use a pump to circulate the water or other fluid from the collector to a strange tank. Integral collector systems replace the absorber plate with large pipes that both absorb solar radiation and store the heated liquid. Batch solar water heaters, also known as ‘breadboxes’ are very simple passive systems for heating water. They consist of black storage tanks contained within an insulated box that has a transparent cover.
A thermosiphon solar water heater utilizes flat plate collector to heat the water, which is then returned to a storage tank, located above the collector. Cold, denser water flows through the collector where it is heated and then returned to the tank. As the heated water is less dense, it rises to the top of the tank. Thermosiphon solar water heaters use a separate storage tank located above the collector, and when liquid is heated it rises naturally to the tank.
SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT: Flat plate collector
MANUFACTURER(S): CHROMAGEN is a leading international manufacturer of solar and electric water heaters, combining the most advanced technology with traditional heating methods. Our products incorporate state-of-the-art engineering, rugged construction and select materials resulting in durable, efficient products.
COUNTRIES WHERE TECHNOLOGY IS UTILIZED: Worldwide
a. CEIS Update
iii. Internet Sites(s):
(Source: ECOTEC, Jamaica)
• Investment Cost & Payback per MW per hour per day $550,000 3-4 years
• Space needed for 1 MW Output 500 m2/5,375 ft2
• Payback with fuel incentive 1.5 – 2 years
• Alternative Power Sources, Jamaica http://www.apsja.com/
• ECOTEC, Jamaica http:// www.go2ecotec.com
OUTPUT RANGE: Varied
INPUT / RAW MATERIALS UTILIZED TO PRODUCE: Water and solar energy
ORGANIZATION(S) PROMOTING TECHNOLOGY:
• Jamaica Solar Energy Association
• Caribbean Solar Finance Programme
• National Housing Trust, Jamaica- Loans for solar water heater installations
Source: Directory of Energy Technology, CEIS
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